(CAJOLIS) An Interdisciplinary Journal ISSN: 1115-2087 Submit Article
ABOLITION AND THE SIERRA LEONEAN DIASPORIANS IN OLD CALABAR, 1840-1920
David Lishilinimle Imbua
From 1808 a substantial number of Africans were rescued by British patrols from captured slave ships and resettled in the “Province of Freedom” on the Sierra Leonean coast, which had been founded in 1787 to serve as a refuge area for freed Blacks in Britain and British North America. The hardened official attitude and the inclement geographical realities as well as the hatred from earlier settlers frustrated the promises of freedom. This situation left the Liberated Africans with emigration to other British colonies as the only panacea. As traders and artisans, they emigrated to Old Calabar where two successive monarchs – The Great Archibong Duke and Eyo Honesty- were ready to welcome them. In Calabar, the Sierra Leonean immigrants took to the lucrative trade in oil, and this pitched them against European supercargoes who had established themselves as monopolists in oil trade in the Cross River region. Unable to safeguard their claimed exclusive right to the purchase of oil, the supercargoes incited the kings to deport the Sierra Leoneans from Old Calabar. The kings of Old Calabar succumbed to the pressures from the supercargoes and became hostile to the Sierra Leoneans whom they threatened with expulsion. The official colonization of Old Calabar in 1891 created a peaceful environment, which made the Sierra Leonean immigrants feel at home in Calabar. Over time, they contributed in stimulating the growth of the major sectors of Calabar’s economy in especially significant ways. This paper examines and analyses the character and dynamics of the changing patterns of interactions between Old Calabar indigenes, Sierra Leonean immigrants and the Europeans in Old Calabar from 1840 to 1920.
ASPECTS OF SLANG EXPRESSIONS IN IBIBIO
Imeobong John Offong and Paulinus Noah
Slang is used extensively in Ibibio for purposes of intimacy, informality, fun, seclusion, solidarity and identification, among others. However, not much attention has been given to it in the literature. Data for this study were gathered through observation (listening), (Occasional surreptitious) recording, participation (with native speaker’s intuition) and library research using motorcycle operators, commercial drivers, motor park attendants, civil servants and students as our primary population; while the city of Uyo served as our primary sample space. The stratified random sampling technique guarantees that the sample is representative of the groups characteristics. Among other things, the study reveals that just as there is no necessary corollary between educational attainment and slang use, students create the least slang in Ibibio, unlike in English. Also, though slang can be created within the family, young city women are less prolific perhaps largely due to socio cultural constraints, historically. Finally, Ibibio people are fast accepting the reality that slang creation/ usage is not just about the most prolific means of lexical development, but also a major machinery of showcasing linguistic creativity and certain aspects of African language features such as reduplication and verb serialization.
CORRELATES OF DEATH ANXIETY AMONG PERSONS IN LATE ADULTHOOD IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA
Rachel D. Uche
This study sought to determine the extent to which death anxiety correlates with age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and domestic responsibilities among persons in late adulthood in Cross River State (CRS), Nigeria. A three sub-scale instrument was used – Background Data Scale (BADS), Socioeconomic Status Scale (SOSS), Death Anxiety Scale (DAS), for the collection of data. The sample consisted of 430 older persons and the ex-post facto design was employed. The data was analysed in line with the four hypotheses and the results indicated that death anxiety had a significant relationship with age, but a non-significant one with gender, SES and domestic responsibilities. It was therefore recommended that older persons entertain little or no anxiety over death because such anxiety could preclude the confidence necessary to set about preparations for this inevitable journey to the great beyond.
CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE PROBLEMATICS INVOLVED IN THE CONCEPT OF MORAL TRUTH
Asukwo, Offiong O. and Etta, Emmanuel E.
The foundational epistemologists are in search for the truth that is certain and indubitable on what we claim to know. But this is to no avail. The reason for this is that, foundationalism predicated on what absolute truth is, will ever remain problematic. The aim of this work is to establish the futility of such, and focus on what truth does. What truth does is that it points to a positive value which if consistently upheld will lead to a sound foundation in knowledge and moral life. In this connection moral truth forms the fulcrum of foundational epistemology, thereby making moral truth indispensable in the construction of foundational epistemology. This is how this work arrives at moral foundationalism. But relativism, pragmatism and postmodernism in the bid to challenge this position ended up in self contradictions. It is the view of this work that our search for certainty, clarity and indubitability can only be found in moral foundationalism and not in relativism, pragmatism and postmodernism.
DE L’EQUIVALENCE A LA LITTERALITE OU AU-DELA DE BABEL: UNE ETUDE DE LA PARTICULARITE POETIQUE D’AMOS TUTUOLA DANS THE PALME WINE DRINKARD
Moruwawon Babatunde Samuel et Odey Ebi Veronica
Cet article porte sur une appréciation de la traduction de particularité poétique d’Amos Tutuola comme marque du vécu dans son œuvre romanesque negro africaine: The Palme Wine Drinkard. Ces particularités poétiques y comprennent de: la métaphore, la transposition, et la cinématographie textuelle. Jusqu’à présent, tous les travaux qui traitent la particularité poétique en traduction littéraire n’exploitent pas l’œuvre de Tutuola comme nous comptons faire. Etant donné que la traduction n’a pas que le rôle de transmettre l’altérité de l’autre, le message écrit en une autre langue, nous proposons d’examiner ces particularités poétiques mises en jeu par l’auteur original avant de conclure si la traduction faite par Raymond Queneau est fidèle ou non. Afin de bien mener notre recherche, nous survolons le texte de notre corpus d’analyse pour avoir des échantillons assez représentatifs de cette particularité poétique. L’article conclut que cette particularité poétique reste en elle-même une illusion et par là, toute transformation traductionnelle doit rendre avec fidélité la nature paradoxale de cette poétisation en langue d’arrivée.
LANGUAGE, IDENTITY AND IMMIGRANTS IN CHIMAMANDA ADICHE’S AMERICANA
Ekpang, Juliet Nkane
Language is both the communicative tool and the identity marker of people in a society. A person’s identity can be deciphered through his/her use of a particular language. Language and identity, therefore, influence the activities of a people and to a large extent map out their interpretation of the world around them. The migration of people from one linguistic society to another as depicted in Chimamanda Adiche’s Americana has generated far-reaching implications in terms of language and identity. These implications, found at the phonological, syntactic and semantic levels of linguistic study have generated a new kind of identity: a mixed breed of some sort that is distinctively peculiar. This paper studies these distinctive linguistic habits of immigrants in Adiche’s Americana and proposes a prototype for their taxonomy. The socio-linguistic theory of language analysis provides the framework for this study.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY IN LITERARY EXPLORATION ACROSS THE GENRES OF PROSE, DRAMA AND POETRY
Umoren, Tonia I. and Ishaya, Yusuf Tsojon
This paper attempts to situate Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory as indispensable in literary exploitation. Thus, the paper engages the three genres of literature:- prose, drama and poetry. Four novels, two plays and two poems cutting across the bounds of sex, and regions of the African continent are employed. The novels include Chinua Achebs’s A Man of the People (1966), Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Alani the Troublemaker… (2008) Olajire Olanlokun’s The Dreamer (2008), and Amma Darko’s Faceless (2013). The plays are: Ola Rotimi’s The gods are not to blame (1971), Ngugi Wa Thiong ‘O and Micere Githae Mugo’s The Trial of Dedan Kimathi (1981) while the poems include Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali’s “Boy on a Swing” (1971) and Joe Ushie’s “To Bose” (2004). The paper tries to show the invaluability of psychoanalysm to literary critics in analyzing authors and the characters they portray in their works to reveal the reasons for their action or inaction. It also examines the influence of society on their psyche and vice-versa. Furthermore, it shows how the theory enables literary critics explore the hidden and deeper meanings of literary texts. The paper discovers that literature does contain a rich evidence of man’s subconscious which may be the manifestation of the writer’s ‘neurosis’ in the pursuit of his vision. It concludes that the application of psychoanalytic theory in literary analysis enables us to have a better understanding and a balanced assessment of the behavior of people, and assist them where necessary, for the benefit of the individuals and the society at large.
THE AFRICAN THEOLOGIAN AND THE READING OF LITERATURE
Adolphus Ekedimma Amaefule
Apart from Scripture and tradition, theology has always had an intimate relationship with philosophy, a relationship that has endured for centuries. Of late, however, it has also come to show interest in other disciplines and discourses, among which is literature. But not all have accepted this new relationship between it and literature. By employing descriptive and analytical methodology, however, this paper sought to outline the significance that literature holds for theology, or better, the practitioner of theology in Africa today. It found out that it can help the African theologian learn more about theology, explain better the little theology he\she knows, remind him\her of past events and thus ensure the development of an African anamnestic theology, boost his\her efforts at inculturating the christian message and, among other things, play a greater role in the African theologian’s business of language-watching. The paper hopes to create greater awareness on the necessity of interdisciplinarity in modern scholarship and, more specifically, in the Humanities and Social Sciences.
THE POETICS OF OTHERNESS IN THE POETRY OF LE ROY JONES (AMIRI BARAKA) AND NIKKI GIOVANNI
Idom T. Inyabri
In the history of African American Poetry, the Black Arts Movement (BAM) stands out for some reasons namely, its radical form and its unpretentious expression of rage against white supremacist society. Because of its roots in Black Power Politics the Black Arts Movement has often been justifiably associated with violence and nonconformity. This paper takes a different approach to the study of the Black Arts poetry, the poetry that come out of BAM. It focuses on the psychology of Otherness, which it locates as the impulse that gave birth to the poetry and sustained its aesthetics. Adopting the postcolonial paradigm, the research topicalizes the poetry of Le Roy Jones (Amiri Baraka) and Nikki Giovanni to uncouple the subtle layers of otherness that characterize the Black arts response to racism in the United States during the 1960s. In analyzing this thematic issue, the paper also interrogates the artistic techniques that go a long way to establish otherness in the Black Arts Poetry.
WOMEN, REVOLT, CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN TESS ONWUEME’S THE REIGN OF WAZOBIA
Gloria Eme Worugji
Revolt and change are like twin brothers. The quest for change often, leads to revolt. In most societies of the world, especially in Africa and Nigeria, failure to recognize, understand and accept positive change, leads to several recorded causes of revolts. In Nigeria for instance, history records one of the first revolt by women in the East during the colonial era, ‘The Aba Women’s War’ as a revolt for change. In other words, change in some cases is achieved through revolt. Yet, change as an agent of development is inevitable in any human society. However, some Nigerian authors have demonstrated revolt for change which leads to development through their works as we see in Tess Onwueme’s The Reign of Wazobia, Then She Said It, What Mama Said, Ola Rotimi’s Ovonramwen Nogbaisi, Conice Nwankwo’s Hopes of the Living, J.P Clark’s The Wives Revolt, Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds, Femi Osofisan’s. The Road, Wole Soyinka’s Madmen and Specialists, among others. In all human societies, everyone, young or old desires development and change to be able to function maximally and have a sense of belonging. Often development and change come through revolt. The seekers are often misunderstood and regularly ignored, especially when they are females. Revolt remains the only option to bringing about such development and change. This paper addresses issues of revolt, development and change, using the Nigerian experience as captured by Tess Onwueme in The Reign of Wazobia. The women in this play revolted against archaic culture and tradition which rendered them inconsequential in their community development programmes. The women revolt and eventually getdesiredcha the nge. The paper concludes that collective positive change makes for progress and development, and this can only come through unity among the revolters. A violence free society is a vibrant and progressive one. The Nigerian society should consider this, if it must develop alongside other progressing societies globally.