Journal of Multidisciplinary Discourses (HIKIMA) Vol 1. No. 1 (2017) ISSN: xxxx xxxx            Submit Article for Vol 1. No 2.         Purchase copy

Aggression: An Inevitable Consequence of Frustration

Amayo Richard & Ubah Edosa John; Tayo Akpata University of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin, Nigeria

Abstract

This paper examines aggression as an inevitable consequence of frustration. Frustration has continued to be regarded as an inheritable antecedent of aggression, in other words, whenever, an aggressive act occurred, it was assumed that it was instigated by frustration. Relatively, little research carried out on the effects of the three factors that are considered to be responsible for the amount of frustration in people include Strength of instigation, frustrated response, the degree of interference with the frustrated response and the number of frustrated response in sequence. Aggression could be defined as a class of pain-producing or damage producing response and sequence of behaviour leads to the injury of the person to whom it is directed, and frustration could be defined as a delay of reinforcement. Sources of frustration include personal limitations, physiological or psychological, genetic or learned and others. Fears or conflicts, which may result from attack or punishment, fall into this group also. Among the most commonly found types of disorders or abnormality of personality and character are inadequate personality, explosive personality, passive-aggressive personality, obsessive-compulsive personality and antisocial personality. Frustration may produce a temporary increase in drive and thus lead to a more vigorous response.

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Robotic Sex Technology and Family Life: Essencism as an African Model in Philosophy of Sexuality

Samuel Asuquo Ekanem & Magdalyn Aboh & Chinenye Precious Okolisah: Department of Philosophy, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria. Email: samaekanem@gmail.com

Abstract

In our contemporary world, there are several difficulties that parents are confronted with, and despite various social contexts, providing children with adequate preparation for adult life in relation to the education of sexuality is herculean. Indeed, there are several reasons for this difficulty, which are not new both in the developed and developing countries. Historically, it has been shown that the family did not give specific sexual education in the past, especially in Africa, but the general culture was characterized by regards and respect for basic values and as such function as a model of protection. With globalization in the 21st century, there is a serious decline of traditional models globally, and this generally deprives children of consistent and positive guidance, as parents become so busy and quite unprepared to assist with adequate answers. This has fatally led to the eclipse of the truth about man, and this has brought about the severe pressure that has reduced sex to something of the common place. With the growth and expansion of technology, the mass media generally become a source of depersonalized, recreational and mostly pessimistic information. This information does not in any way consider the various stages of formation and development of children and young people as this is basically influenced by the distorted individualistic idea of freedom, and as such devoid of fundamental values of life, human love and the family. This situation has made the recent technological advancement in robotic sex a global ethical issue. This technology, certainly pose a serious challenge to human sexuality, family life, love, emotion and marriage as a sacred institution that is divinely established for the purpose of procreation. In this paper, therefore, we will examine the ethical issues of human sexuality, and this will arm us to challenge the technology of robotic sex. It is the position of the paper that robotic sex is a modern-day route and technological trend towards Sodom and Gomorra. We proposed that Essencism as a philosophy of education can help equip the minds of the children and the citizens to resist this sexual trend that is unethical, antisocial and have the potential to bring about depraved society devoid of human emotion, love and family unity. Our approach will be strictly analytical.

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Bureaucracy and Workers Productivity: An Appraising Glance

Eke, Gabriel Favour; Department of Political Science And Sociology, Western Delta University, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria. E-Mail: Ekegabrielfavour@gmail.Com

Osaghae, Felix Sado Osayande; Institute Of Public Administration And Extension Services, University Of Benin, Ekehuan Campus, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. E-Mail: Lixosaghae@Yahoo.Com

Abstract

The paper discussed the problems of bureaucracy in the light of its impact on organizational productivity, with a focus on the inherent impact of bureaucracy on workers performance. The paper revealed the view that Bureaucratic structures have hindered and reduced the level of organizational productivity and performance. Also, it stated that there is a relationship between bureaucratic structures and low productivity in the organization. The study concluded that for workers’ productivity to be high, there is a need for reduction in the level of bureaucratic principles. Finally, the study recommended an increase in workers rewards and motivation to enable them to increase their productivity.

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Epistemological Approach to National Development

John Ehigie (Department Of Educational Foundations) & Victor Abhiele Okosun (Department Of General Studies) Tayo Akpata University Of Education (Former College Of Education Ekiadolor, Benin City), Nigeria

Abstract

The main kernel of this paper is on Epistemological approach to national development. It is a credo that national development is a dynamic, continuous and ongoing activity carried out by heads of various organs of government, interventionist agencies for the advancement and growth of Nigeria. National development encompasses political, economic, scientific/technological and social-cultural milieu. Rationality remains a veritable human quality that is the sine qua non to national transformation and development. It involved human thought processes. This, of course, falls within the purview of epistemology. In this paper, the focus is on the nexus between the philosophical concept “epistemology”, and National Development. Consequently, the paper defines the concepts. Epistemology and National Development. The paper employs epistemology, which is the theory of knowledge as its theoretical framework. The authors posit that epistemology is the platform and panacea for the rapid development and growth of the nook and crannies in Nigeria. It is a desideratum for Nigeria development aspirations.

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Impact of Secularism on Christian Marriage: The Nigerian Context

Clifford Meesua Sibani & Edionwe Osamamen Osaze; Department of Religion, University of Benin, Nigeria. Email: sibaniforus@yahoo.com, bloomymame@yahoo.ca

Abstract

This research focuses on the “impact of secularism on Christian marriage: The Nigerian context”. Secularism is the absence of the sacred in any activity of man, a state in which the profane is practicable. Secularism in Christian marriage in Nigeria showcases deviation from the belief system that holds Christian marriage as sacred. It is discovered that the rich heritage and sanctity of Christian marriage has been destroyed as a result of numerous problems which emerged from secularism. In the light of the above view, the impact of secularism on Christianity have addressed by this research. It went further to address the role of religion in the secular society. This research made use of a historical method and recommends that in the midst of changes in the family institution, the church should watch out against the infiltration of secularism in order to be an example to those in dilemma of marriage in Nigerian secular state.

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Influence of Cognitive Ability Level and School Type on Senior Secondary School Students’ Mathematics Potentials in Enugu State

Unodiaku Stanislus Sochima; Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Email: unodiakustanley@gmail.com

Abstract

This study determined the influence of cognitive ability levels and school type on Senior Secondary School Students’ mathematics potentials in Enugu State. The research design adopted for the study was survey research design. Multi-stage sampling procedures were adopted in randomly selecting schools, classes and subjects which yielded195 senior secondary school one (SSS 1) students composed of 64 students from private and 131 from public schools. The research instrument used for the study was a researcher’s developed mathematics achievement test (MAT) instrument. The reliability of 0.84 was established using Cronbach alpha’s technique. The study was guided by three research questions and four hypotheses. These hypotheses were tested at p≤.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that: students from private schools possess more mathematics potentials among high and average cognitive ability levels than their counterpart from public schools. However, students of low ability level from public schools exhibited more acquisition of mathematics potentials than students of low cognitive ability level from private schools. The mean differences across the three cognitive ability levels were found significant. It was recommended that teachers should establish differential norms in the assessment of mathematics potentials of students.

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Nigerian Pentecostal Experience of Churches Proliferation: Its Causes

Rimamsikwe Habila Kitaus; Department of Religion and Cultural Studies, Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nigeria

Abstract

Christianity in Nigeria is witnessing an unprecedented denominational multiplication in spite of all ecumenical initiatives employed in making churches to cooperate and unite harmoniously together. This unwholesome phenomenon of churches proliferation attributable to many factors has attracted great concern in Nigeria. This article uses descriptive and analytical approaches in its studies. The paper submits that proliferation of churches could have been the best thing that has happened to this country if all churches were established and run by the fear of God with its overriding positive impact on the lives of the citizenry. This indeed would have made Nigeria to become one of the greatest nations of the world.

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Socio-economic Impacts of Pot-holes on Nigerian Roads and Sustainable Development: An Essencist Ethical X-ray

Samuel Asuquo Ekanem & Magdalyn Aboh & Chinenye Precious Okolisah: Department of Philosophy, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria. Email: samaekanem@gmail.com

Abstract

The Problem of Pot-holes on the Nigerian roads has become an embarrassing national stigma. This deplorable condition of the Nigerian roads is such that require a national emergency to ameliorate the situation. Indeed, normal interaction in several parts of the country has been frustrated by pot-holes that hampered vehicular movements. Most vehicles are not optionally utilized as these several and multiple pot-holes and detours imply that these vehicles break down severally, which at the end prolong and frustrate commuters, leaving them stranded with numerous severe consequences on the road. Again, the several security agencies contribute to the agony of Nigerians that ply these roads. There are several security check-points that even blocked the good parts of the roads with all manners of barriers that compelled the drivers to make use of the bad sport of the roads. This is done deliberately to force motorists to stop for security extortions. The worst hits are the commercial vehicles and trucks that carry goods. Potholes and the activities of the security agencies have severe negative socio-economic impacts on our drive for sustainable economic development as a nation. It is therefore expected that the government will tackle the problem with all the seriousness it deserves. However, the recent statement by the Minister of Works, Power and Housing, Mr Babatunde Fashola that the government will only attend to roads that are viable smacked of political insensitivity to a national problem and disaster. This statement from the Minister portrays the Government as not aware of the vital role of good road transportation system to the economic development and revitalization of the country. In this paper therefore, effort will be made to reconstruct the vital roles of road transportation to the economic transformation of Nigeria. It will establish the relationship between a sound Philosophy of Education to maintenance culture, economic development and sustainability. The paper also posits that Essencism as a Philosophy of Education will help provide the epistemic-ethical orientation for Nigerian leaders to know the role they have to play in the country’s development. It is further argued that Essencism will through the educative processes empowered all Nigerians to discover their essence and function. This philosophy will help establish a new consciousness and nationalistic spirit that will be anchored on national values and humanistic thinking rather than the present ethnic and individual interests that promote corruption, which has in several ways affected our social infrastructures.

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Students’ Motivation by the Teacher’s Skills and Students’ Academic Achievement in Social Studies in Cross River State, Nigeria

Okon Edem Akpan; Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria

Abstract

This research study examined students’ motivation by the teacher and the academic achievement of students in social studies. Expost facto was adopted as the research design and the study population comprised 14,297 JSS III students in which a sample size of 1,200 JSS III students was selected through stratified random technique from the three Educational Zones in State Secondary Education Board (SSEB), Cross River State, Nigeria. The instrument (student’ motivation by the teacher and student academic achievement) used for data collection was a structured six-point Likert scale questionnaire with reliability estimate of 0.83 and achievement test scores. The data collected were analyzed as well as the null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance and 1198 degree of freedom to ascertain the reliability that existed between those variables. It was discovered that there exists a negative relationship between students’ motivation by the teacher and the academic achievement of students in Social Studies. It was recommended that students’ motivation by the teacher should not be too personal as this tends to decrease the level of academic achievement of students in Social Studies.

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Teaching Profession in Nigeria: Implication for Microteaching Theory and Practice Curriculum in Taraba State University, Nigeria

El-Yakubu, Lawal Isa & Ekenna, Emmanuela Ndidi; General Studies Unit, Federal University of Wukari, Nigeria. Email: lawalelyakubu@gmail.com

Abstract

The study assesses micro teaching theory and practice in Taraba State University as a vehicle for releasing professionalism in teaching. From the perspective of literature, microteaching was defined, its uses were highlighted. The research was conducted at Taraba State University, Jalingo in the Faculty of Education. The research design was experimental, the population was identified and samples were selected. Instrument validated and tested, questionnaires were prepared, distributed and collected. The result of the study shows that there is operational micro-teaching laboratory in the university. However, there is problem of epileptic power supply to operate the laboratory. There are also competent and qualified lecturers in the university to teach microteaching as a course to enable students trainee becomes professionals in teaching through micro teaching theory and practice. Teachers also responded positively to their profession in terms of their attitude, which will also serve as a motivator to students trainee to put in their best for professionalism in future, even though time allocated is not significant enough to practice and drill micro teaching theory and practice yet, it promotes professionalism in teachers.

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The Roles of Morality and Democracy in Fostering Social Order: A Conceptual Study

Ujomu Philip Ogochukwu

Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities, Management and Social Sciences [FHMSS] Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. Email: pujomu@yahoo.com, ujomuphilip@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper does a conceptual study of the link between morality, democracy and the establishment of stable and viable social order. Social order is a form of a social organisation established by a man in order to facilitate the realisation of certain ends. Such aspirations cannot be presumed or assumed when dealing with human beings because of egoism and social conflicts. Rather much effort needs to be put in to attain social order and this goal can be achieved through morality and democracy. Morality does not only harmonise interests, it also affirms the importance of the human person as an end in himself and tries to cultivate in people, certain desired traits of character which are the essential ingredients required for building a proper human society. The human person as a moral agent is viewed as a being endowed with dignity, freedom and responsibility. This responsibility is easily seen in the hunger and effort to serve and promote justice in individual and social dealings. This requires a political culture or system to actualise it. Democracy seems best suited to accomplish this, despite its weak points. As such social order can be established only if democracy is conceived as a system of values or a way of life that stands firmly upon values like freedom, equality, tolerance, pluralism, dialogue, participation and accountability.

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Understanding the Philosophical Foundation of Science

Tughhemba, Terfa Nicholas: Departmental of Philosophy, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State. Email: tughhemba@gmail.com

Abstract

Philosophers through the ages have made resounding efforts to lay the foundation for the smooth takeoff of science. This effort attained meaningfulness results in the modern times with the notable contributions of Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, David Hume, George Berkley, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel etc. to the development of science. Despite that, the existence of philosophy is in doubt. It is argued that even if philosophy exists, its subject matter and methodology is outlandish to science. This has led to the question, whether science has a philosophical foundation. This paper attempts to clarify the concepts philosophy and science, explaining the relationship between them. It buttresses how philosophy, as the mother of all sciences, assists scientists via tools such as critical analysis, hermeneutics, deduction, induction and falsification to gain scientific knowledge. Using three kinds of philosophy, metaphysics, epistemology and ethics, the authors have tried to lucidly prove that science has a philosophical foundation. The paper concludes that philosophical knowledge is indispensable to scientific investigation.

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