Journal of Integrative Humanism Vol. 8 No. 1  (2017)   Integrative Perspective  ISSN: 2026 – 6286     Submit Article

Rethinking Wealth Creation in Nigeria: A Paremiological Approach

Okebaram, J. C.

Faculty of Theology, Hekima University College, Nairobi – Kenya. Email: john.okebaram@hekima.ac.ke

Abstract

Contemporary happenings all over the world indicate discontinuity between ideal in the ethical life of the youth and the reality. The lived experiences among the present Nigeria youth ascribe this disconnect to the youth’ distance from the wisdom of proverbs whose values are known to have guided and shaped societal interaction. Consequently, the youth have lost values such as honesty, co-operation and positive hard work. They instead show a preference for the unbridled quest for instant and ill-gotten wealth, less regard for inherent dignity and sanctity of human life. These tendencies propel them to patronize ritual murder for both instant wealth and spiritual fortification, and the distortion of human sexuality by engaging in prostitution and drug trafficking. Hence, this article argues for a bold reclamation of the inherent wisdom from Proverbs as one of the ways of fostering the value of cooperation, hard work and honesty for holistic human flourishing that is non-detrimental to anybody’s life. While admitting the importance of other perspectives for addressing these challenges, this article insists that the appropriation of the wisdom encapsulated in some Igbo proverbs would contribute to the transformation of youth’s perception of life especially as it pertains to wealth creation.

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A Critique of Burton Leiser’s Thesis on the Unnatural Nature of Homosexuality

Chrisantus Kanayochukwu Ariche

Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar, Calabar. Email: arichesantus@gmail.com

Abstract

In the past homosexuality was done in secret. Homosexuals do not want the public to associate them with the act. But today people even boldly come out in the social media as homosexuals without fear of condemnation. They argue that homosexuality is nothing but an alternative sexual orientation. Some argue that it is a genetically inherited orientation and there is nothing wrong with it. Moralist and Christians condemned homosexual act as immoral, unnatural practice that violates the law of nature. Many countries like Nigeria have further condemned homosexuality and have a penalty for anyone caught in such an act. On the contrary, Burton Leiser examined some of the arguments levelled against homosexuality and rejected them. He rejected the argument that homosexual is wrong because it violates the law of nature in the sense of being uncommon, abnormal or artificial. This paper examines Leiser’s unnatural argument and posits that homosexuality is abnormal and unnatural in the sense that it is contrary to the fundamental and natural end of a sexual act. Secondly, the method through which it is done makes it unnatural. It is an unnatural sexual act that should be condemned in strong terms.

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Critical Review of the Controversy About Capital Punishment

Edem E. Udoka & Jacob A. Dada & M. P. Okom

Abstract

The call for an abolition of death penalty in Nigeria, following the recent execution of four condemned criminals in Edo State, is generating a contentious debate. As the Nigerian society is becoming more receptive of western values, there is the pressure from Europe, the United Nations Organisation, Amnesty International, and other Non-Governmental Organisations for the country to abolish capital punishment. The mere mention of a death penalty is grieving, which makes the call for its abolition to seem legitimate. The gravity of capital offences and the emergence of novel, violent crimes have not allowed the authorities to appreciate the need for abolition. They would rather prefer to extend capital punishment to novel crimes that cause widespread humanitarian disasters. These two perspectives are contradictory and irreconcilable, resulting in a dilemma for the authorities. In taking a conclusive decision on the matter, public interest, the interest of justice and the demands of a modern and just society should be considered. While the sanctity of human lives is paramount, any option that will enhance public safety should be pursued. In the words of Cicero, “Saluspopulisupremaestlex”, (i.e. The welfare of the people is the ultimate law.)

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Mainstreaming the Challenges and Prospects of Sustainable Tourism Administration in Cross River State, Nigeria

Felix Onen Eteng (Department of Public Administration) & Eja, Iwara Eja (Department of Tourism Studies) University of Calabar, Nigeria

Abstract

This paper is anchored on mainstreaming the challenges and prospects of sustainable tourism administration in Cross River State. Interviews and questionnaire were the two methods of data collection used for this study. One hypothesis which tries to assess whether or not there exist a significant relationship between challenges and prospects of tourism in Cross River State with specific reference to Calabar was formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result from the analysis shows that there is a significant relationship between the challenges and prospects of sustainable tourism in Cross River State with Calabar in particular. However, the data collected shows that sustainable tourism in Cross River State and Calabar, in particular, has aided the economic growth and development of the state especially Calabar the State capital. Nevertheless, despite the significant contributions of sustainable tourism administration in the study area, the activities of sustainable tourism indicators are not devoid of environmental challenges which have a great impact on the human environment.

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Martin Heidegger and the Question of Being

Emmanuel Kelechi Iwuagwu

Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar, Calabar. Email: Email: fremmakele@yahoo.com

Abstract

This work is a critical exposition of Martin Heidegger’s life, times and exploration into the question of Being. The work surveys the background of Heidegger’s philosophizing, his principal interest in ontology, his attack on traditional metaphysics, his adoption of the Husserlian phenomenology as a method and his use as his starting point Dasein, the only being who understands what it means to be, the being for whom his being is in question and is of special interest to him. The work also made an exhaustive critique of Heidegger’s analysis of human existence especially with regard to Dasein’s mode of being, its tripartite ontological structure of existentiality, facticity and fallenness; its authentic and inauthentic existence and the comprehensive concept of care. The work further examined Heidegger’s other themes discussed in his search for the meaning of Being, these include temporality, historicity and nothingness. The work observed that Heidegger’s failure to rise above what he condemned in traditional metaphysics left him confused and unable to complete his major work Being and Time and forced him to make a turn. This turn (die kehre) which initiated his later philosophy, though still preoccupied itself with the question of Being, followed a less rigorous means. This new way is the use of poetic language to make Being unconcealed. The work, in conclusion, observed that Heidegger’s preoccupation with the question of Being by his methods and themes left him a phenomenological ontologist, an existentialist, a humanist and an atheist while leaving the question of Being unanswered.

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The Role of Faith-Based Organisations in the Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Nigeria: The Case of Justice, Development and Peace Commission (JDPC), 1999-2016

Nneka Sophie Amalu

Department of History and International Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar. Email: amasophie001@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper examines the role of faith-based organisations in post-conflict reconstruction in Nigeria, using the case of Justice, Development and Peace Commission from 1999 to 2016. Across the country, conflict has assumed wider magnitude with grave attendant consequences on both the people and the nation. Being aware of these consequences, various sectors of the society are making attempts at conflict prevention, peace-making and post-conflict reconstruction in order to promote peace and cordial neighbourliness. Faith-based organisations are actively involved in this crusade, yet their contributions are inadequately recognised and mapped. Interviews conducted by three JDPC coordinators were considered appropriate for gathering primary data as well as the use of secondary data. Adopting descriptive and analytical approaches, the study reveals that since after 1999 when JDPC broadened its activities to include conflict-torn areas,  the Commission has been directly involved in diverse forms of post-conflict reconstruction including providing emergency humanitarian assistance and essential social services; encouraging maximum participation in governance through political awareness; promoting human rights, resolving grievances arising from conflicts and advocating for an accountable legal system; engendering economic activities through the creation of opportunities for self-reliance, capacity building as well as physical reconstruction. Based on the achievements of JDPC, the paper calls on other faith-based organisations to be committed to the reconstruction of conflict-torn areas for the restoration of peace and normalcy in Nigeria.

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Capital Punishment and its Implication for the Nigerian Society

Chrisantus Kanayochukwu Ariche

Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Email: arichesantus@gmail.com

Douglas Awurumibe; School of General studies, Imo state polytechnic, Nigeria

Abstract

Nigeria like other countries has always attempted to curb crimes but unfortunately, crime and criminals keep increasing. The upsurge of crime in Nigeria has posed a serious challenge to the development of the Nigerian society. In a bid to punish murderers and deter intending criminals’ Nigerian government in its constitution stipulated capital punishment for murder and other serious crimes like armed robbery, treason, and kidnapping. Although capital punishment still remains constitutionally valid in Nigeria it is now under debate. Many argue that it should be retained as a means of deterring intending criminals and to serve a retributive function. Others argue for its abolition on the basis that it is a cruel, barbaric and horrible punishment. In the contribution to this debate, this paper argued for the abolition of capital punishment because it has failed as a substantial deterrent for serious crimes in Nigeria. It is in this direction that this paper submits that since the Nigerian state is guilty of the same crime, did not create life it has no right to terminate life. It argues from a moral perspective. In cases of murder or other serious crimes, the death penalty should be substituted with life imprisonment since such individuals pose a threat to the life of the innocent citizens.

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Philosophy and Moral Development

G. O. Ozumba

Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar, Calabar. Email: goddyozumba@yahoo.com

Our attempt is to show the place of philosophy in the articulation of good morals. Our position is that though the study of philosophy may not make a student of philosophy be more moral than a non-student of philosophy, however, it is instructive to highlight that the study of philosophy makes one better disposed to more ethical judgements than a non-philosopher. The exposure to certain ethical theories like deontologism, teleologism, intuitionism, hedonism, altruism, situationism, Marxism, epicureanism, feminism, cynicism. Stoicism, emotivism, etc., live one better equipped to handle assessment of ethical issues. Our position is that when one is versed in the philosophical tools of analysis, criticality, systematicity, logicality, coherentism , rigorosity, ideality, etc., one now knows how to dissect ethical issues and make meaningful contributions as to what should constitute the good life. We depose that there is need not to downplay the role of philosophy in the systematization of morality. It imbues us with the many-sidedness of the ethical question which must be handled from its philosophical many-sidedness, this is why we have deployed integrative humanism as the philosophical theory we used in our analysis.

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Global Trend in A Global Paradox: The Role of The Humanities and Social Sciences In Polytechnic Education in Nigeria

Kingdom E. Orji & Mathew E. Okeremeta

Department of History & Diplomatic Studies, Faculty of Humanities, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Email: orjiekekingdom@gmail.com

Abstract 

Polytechnics were established in Nigeria as tertiary institutions with specific objectives viz to contribute to national development through capacity building of professional character in engineering, woodwork, metallurgy, forestry, building technology, environmental studies, etc. These lofty objectives were captured in the country’s National Policy on Education which focused inter-alia on the provision of technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial and economic development. Within this milieu, the role of the Humanities and the Social Sciences cannot be overemphasized bearing in mind that the trend of globalization has reduced our world to a global village with high-tech interconnectivity. Whereas the former comprises disciplines such as Philosophy, History, Language and Literary Studies, Fine Arts, Music, etc, it focuses on the intrinsic worth of man as a member of a larger society, the latter embody disciplines like Political Science, Economics, Geography, Sociology, etc that investigate the dynamic character of society and man’s interactions therein. All these disciplines proffer a solid fulcrum for value orientation and peaceful co-existence. When it is realized that polytechnic education is for national development, then the need for sustainable development (which is a brand of development that guarantees that the economic fortunes of future generations are not compromised) comes to the fore. The main thrust of this paper is the submission that the sustained inclusion of the Humanities and Social Sciences in our polytechnic curriculum will facilitate the production of a total man with manifest implications.

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Indigenous Symbols and Their Communicative Implications for Conflict Management and Peace Building Amongst the Igbo, Nigeria (1900-2016)

Ekong Demson PhD

Department of History and International Studies, University of Uyo, Email: ekongdemson@yahoo.com

&

Nneka Sophie Amalu

Department of History and International Studies, University of Calabar, Email: amasophie001@gmail.com

Abstract

The main thrust of this paper is to examine indigenous symbols and their communicative implications for conflict management and peacebuilding amongst the Igbo of south-eastern Nigeria, from1900 to 2016.Conflict management and peacebuilding are two phenomena not strange to any society of the world. The methods and strategies employed in these processes by different indigenous societies vary. It has been widely mentioned that before the coming of the Europeans, Africans had their peculiar ways of managing conflict and building peace.  Among the Igbo, certain symbolic objects were and are still being employed in managing conflict and attaining peace. Interviewing key persons considered to be custodians of Igbo culture was considered an appropriate instrument for gathering data as well as the use of secondary data. Hence, using descriptive and historical approaches, the paper identifies these indigenous symbols as the omu (palm fronds), ofo (staff of truth, authority and justice) and oji (kola nut). These symbols are used in preventing and managing conflict, and also building peace. The paper emphasizes that these symbols are still potent and efficacious even in contemporary times and reiterates the need to encourage the usage of indigenous mechanisms through researches and incorporation into foreign methods for the attainment of peace in the society.

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