Journal of Integrative Humanism Vol. 9 No. 1 June (2018) Integrative Perspective ISSN: 2026 – 6286 Submit Article
Humanism, Human Dignity and the Right to Die: A Critical Ethical Analysis
Department of Religion and Human Values, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Email: [email protected]
Given the various abuses to human dignity in our contemporary times, a discussion that deals with respect for the dignity of humans have significant importance. Without respect for human dignity, the quest for human well-being risks ending up as a mere wishful thinking. Humanism`s endeavour to promote human dignity is a very laudable idea. However, there seems to be a contradiction for Humanism to promote human dignity and concurrently allow the right to die through euthanasia, and suicide. This paper critically analyses this apparent contradiction in Humanism`s attempt to promote Human dignity whiles endorsing the right to die.
Keywords: Humanism, Human dignity, Right to die, Suicide, euthanasia
Integrative African Metaphysics
G. O. Ozumba
Department of Philosophy, University of Calabar. Email: [email protected]
Metaphysics is the encapsulation of reality. It is all-embracing and all denoting. Metaphysics is one of the central branches of philosophy that is concerned with reality, existence and their multidimensional constitution and nature. Reality is both physically and spiritually immanent and transcendent, corporeal and incorporeal. This means that metaphysics should be studied in its essentialist, existentialist, phenomenological, religious (theological) psychological, sociological and relational ambience. We are interested in understanding the omni-comprehensibility of the universe and entire reality. To have a full view of reality we must do so in their omni-dimensionality in essence, relations and evidence. This is why we are saying that African metaphysics can only be fully studied from the integrative perspective. The African uniquely views, reality from an all-encompassing, all-integrated whole. This is why we have identified “empirico-ratio-spiritocentricism” as the best metaphysical approach to the issue of African metaphysics and this is the view that is canvassed in this essay.
Keywords: Integrative Metaphysics, African Metaphysics, existentialism, essentialism, phenomenology, psychology, cosmology, relationism and empirico-ratio-spiritocentricism.
Socio-economic Predictors of Maternal Healthcare Uptake by Women in Makoko Community, Lagos, Nigeria
Department of Sociology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: [email protected]
The study investigated the socio-economic predictors of maternal healthcare uptake in Makoko community (an urban slum) within the Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample size of 250 women of childbearing age (15 – 49 years), randomly drawn from the community, using the multi-stage sampling technique. Specifically, the study sought to unravel if age, marital status, education, employment status, income, birth order, husband’s education and distance to health facility mediated on the uptake of maternal healthcare by women in Makoko community. Conflict and symbolic interactionism perspectives serve as the theoretical underpinnings of the study. Findings reveal that age, education, income, birth parity and husband’s education are positively correlated with the uptake of maternal healthcare. The study recommends targeted campaigns by government and non-governmental organizations on the dangers of lack of maternal healthcare, skill training for unemployed women and improvement of health facilities in Makoko community.
Keywords: antenatal, safe delivery, postnatal, family planning, mortality, death
Translation and Interpretation in Providing Assistance to Refugees: The Case of Central Africa Republic Refugees in Cameroon
Samson Fabian Nzuanke
Department of Modern Languages & Translation Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar-Nigeria
Olufumilayo Olukemi Ogbadu
Higher Institute of Translation, Interpretation and Communication, Nkolbisson, Yaounde-Cameroon
This study seeks to highlight the relevance of translation and interpretation in providing assistance to refugees and builds on a case study of refugees from Central African Republic who sought refuge in the Republic of Cameroon. The study also seeks to find out the extent humanitarian workers need and use competent translators and interpreters to provide assistance to refugees. This study adopts the sociolinguistic theory of translation which underscores the adaptation of information to the culture and ethnic origin of the target audience. To this end, primary data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and observation while secondary data were collected through relevant textbooks, journals and websites. Questionnaires were administered to 120 refugees in Gado refugee site, to 45 humanitarian workers that provide assistance to refugees and to 15 translators and interpreters who have worked with agencies handling refugee matters. Descriptive Statistical Method was used to analyze the data collected. The results of the findings show that Central African Republic refugees in Cameroon are in real need of translation and interpretation services as the majority of the respondents, that is 90% of the sample population indicated the fact that they needed translation and interpretation services in different areas ranging from registration with the UNHCR, to receiving health services, and other forms of assistance.
Key-words: Translation/Interpretation, Assistance, Refugees, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic
The Influence of Cross-Cultural Communication on Communication Research in A Changing World
Department Of Theatre Arts, Faculty of Arts, Delta State University, Abraka
Communication is said by experts in the field to be the wheel that drives the engine of the society; that neither society nor communication can operate meaningfully without the other. It has also been observed by communication scholars that every society gets the kind of media it deserves. The implication is that the ideology which a given society has inevitably rubs off on its culture and communication and inevitably determines the mode and type of communication education in such society, hence of its research. No doubt, the world of the 21st century is remarkably different from the worlds of past centuries. It is particularly so as it has not only manifested the predictions of Herbert Marshall McLuhan about the global village, the media being the message and the extensions of man; it has transcended such predictions beyond imagination. This paper discusses how a people’s culture, the society they live in and the kind of ideology they live by affect the communication research in such a society even as the world continues to change on a daily basis, with particular emphasis on Nigeria. The paper uses library research method by looking at extant materials on the subject. Arising from the findings, conclusion is made and recommendations were suggested.
Keywords: Communication, Society, Research, Culture, Education.
Trends and Tensions in Christian Missionary Enterprise in Africa, 1860-1930, And African Response: The Nigerian Example
Kanayo L. Nwadialor
Department of Religion and Human Relations, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Email: [email protected]
At a certain point in time, the history of the Church in Africa reached a turning point. This was when the spirit of separatism started within the Church due to white domination, maltreatment of the blacks by the white missionaries and the influence of education. It is quite obvious that as soon as the European missionaries, especially the British Protestants, were established in Africa, the white missionaries began to see themselves as belonging to a special group of rulers. Their safety was further guaranteed by the presence of colonial administrations and the breakthrough in European medicine with the discovery of quinine as an antidote to mosquito related malaria. This perhaps, added to what has made them to arrogate more powers to themselves. Furthermore, the missionaries could not bring to Africa the ‘pure milk of the gospel’, but like the majority of human beings, were unable to emancipate themselves from the cultural, emotional and social frame in which they were accustomed to living and expressing their religious lives in Europe. They lived in an age when European civilization and Christianity were believed to hang together as cause and effect, as root and branch. It was then natural that they considered their theological approach, their own forms of marriage and burial, their narrow concept of family and individualism as in the main the best for African converts as well. African culture, on the other hand, is essentially a religious culture and its customs and behaviour are geared towards religious concepts almost completely. African religion had silently, and over innumerable centuries entered a happy symbiosis with the ambient culture such that to be African in culture meant to be African in religion and to separate them was a most delicate operation whose equivalent in surgery might be the separation of Siamese twins. But the early missionaries had little patience for such finesse and delicacy. Since the missionaries were trying to convert the people to a new religion they could not escape condemning many practices as ‘heathenism’. What else could they do but attack the traditional culture, which represented the rival religion they were trying to supplant? The resultant effect was a reaction by African converts that eventually shook the foundation of a universal Church in a similar way that the 16th century Reformation in Western Europe did to Christendom, and consequently, a new course was chatted for a distinctive African Christianity.
Hans-Georg Gadamer’s Praxis and the Ethics of Subjectivity
Department of Philosophy, University of Lagos, Akoka
The problem of value in postmodern discourse has thrown up the fallacies and contradictions that were taken for granted in traditional presentation of ethical issues. The introduction of hermeneutics by Gadamer through postmodern perspective emphasizes the inevitability of praxis to guide moral behavior. Praxis according to Gadamer, is the realm of knowledge where non-positivistic, qualitative/interpretative inquiry finds its home. He sees praxis as a universal form of human life which embraces, yet goes beyond, the technical choice of the best means for a pre-given end. Praxis involves the making of responsible political and practical decisions about happiness, health, peace and freedom, and other stable factors of human being in nature. The application of philosophical hermeneutics by Gadamer has improved understanding of the ontological under-current of taste and judgment which traditional and modern scholarship had rendered oblivion. He argues that the idea of a universal theory that will guide human actions is not only unrealistic but also untenable. For this reason, he recommended a sound approach for the study and interrogation of human affairs, through an ontological dimension to individual and group interests to reduce tension and instability.
Traditional ethics has operated from the point of view of seeing an object from a fixed angle. This approach has not taken into consideration the fluctuating nature of reality as fluid. That reality is fluid recognizes the position of diversity in our approach to understanding the complexity of human affairs. This paper examines the ontological dynamics in Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics.
Keywords: Hermeneutics, Ontological, Praxis, Interpretative, Postmodern
Logical Implications of Leibniz Theory of Knowledge on Social Relations, Religion and Ethics
Department of Philosophy, University of Port Harcourt. E-mail: [email protected]
Epistemology provides the major premises with which the knowledge of God, man, nature, society, ethics and science can be approached. If we know the basic assumptions about reality and the method of knowing it, we can deduce the criterion for determining right and wrong, man’s relationship with the other, and the Supreme Being. Amongst the attempts to solve the problem of knowledge is the rationalist and empiricist schools of thought. Leibniz from the rationalist school of thought proposed his theory of monadology which is a simple, unextended; substantial, dynamic being of a physical nature that reflects and represents the whole universe within itself, spontaneously and consciously without direct interaction with any other being. Leibniz believed that the monad is the unit of life and cannot be changed by anything outside of it. This theory of Leibniz has implications in social relations, ethics and religion.
Keywords: Knowledge, Social Relations, Religion and Ethics
Diaspora and the Fluidity of Identity: Perspectives from Tess Onwueme’s The Missing Face
Adie Edward Ugbada
Department of Theatre, Film and Carnival Studies, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
Yusuf Ninzim SHAMAGANA
Department of Theatre and Performing Arts, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. E-mail Address: [email protected]
Adie Margaret Funmilayo
Unical International Demonstration Secondary School, Calabar, Nigeria.
The concept of identity has over the centuries being a subject of critical discourse, especially in the diasporic context. Some scholars have attempted to ascribe identity to the handiwork of nature or biology, while others have argued, that identity is purely a product of social construction. Within the diasporic space, the issue of identity is usually articulated against the backdrop of power relations among the various peoples that make up the population. Hence, concepts such as ethnicity, racism and racialization often come up to encapsulate the nature of identity politics that play out in the diasporic space. This paper examines the fluidity of the concept of identity within various diasporic entities, especially, the black diaspora. Benedict Anderson’s concept of ‘imagined communities’ is utilized as the theoretical anchor for the study because it reiterates the point that most identities are socially constructed, not biologically determined. Tess Onwueme’s The Missing Face is discussed here to illustrate how the politics of identity has impacted on the lives of the black diaspora.
Community Media as Strategic Tool in The Economic Development of Nigeria’s Pluralistic Society
Adeseye, Bifatife Olufemi
Department of Theatre and Media Arts, Federal University, Oye, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
Lamidi, Ishola Kamorudeen
Department of Mass Communication, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba – Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
The question of the role of community media in economic development has always been in the middle of contending discourse in media economics as community media have always been attached to play key roles in mainly democratic participation. This paper, through economic development models and development media theory, captures the interrelationship that exists between community media and economic development. Our study uses explorative and development communication theoretical frameworks to identify the strategic roles of community media in the economic development of Nigeria. We play close attention to the proximity between community media and members of the rural community within which they operate. Community media feeds on the community for sustenance and therefore maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host. Our paper interrogates the relevance of the various ownership systems operating in Nigeria. We also relate the cliché that says, “who pays the piper dictates the tune” from the perspective of joint ownership structure.
A Critical Study of Inculturation And Evangelization of African Culture
John A. Onimhawo
Department of Religious Management and Cultural Studies, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
Peter O. O. Ottuh
Culture and religion are two societal phenomena that cannot be separated from each other. Every religion has a coloration of the culture where it is founded, hence, culture propels religion and vice visa. The process whereby religion localizes its activities in order for it to be closer and more understood by a particular people is termed inculturation. This paper therefore; argues that inculturation can promote Christian evangelism among African people. Using the descriptive and evaluative methods, the paper reveals that inculturation is a practical theistic response by the church in the midst of cultures, to reawaken the soteriological consciousness of the African people. The paper concludes that African Christianity and, indeed, African themselves must endeavor to understand their culture and embrace enculturation in order to achieve an authentic inculturation.
Key Words: Inculturation, Evangelization and Cultures
Historical-Drama and Society, the Factual and the Artistic Ingenious: Appraisal of Femi Osofisan’s Women of Owu
Joseph Agofure Idogho
Dept of Theatre and Media Arts, Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
Drama and theatre have been extensively applauded as a tool for mirroring society hence the relationship between drama and society; reflecting the complex struggle of life, which, ever has its roots in the depth of human nature and social environment, and hence is, to that extent universal cannot be discounted. Thus, while drama entertains it also teaches reprimands, admonishes and informs. This powerful attribute of drama has been employed by playwrights over the ages; even sometimes resorting to history to make constructive commentaries on the happenings in society as it or would affect man and his environment. This paper attempts an analysis of Femi Osofisan Women of Owu; an African retelling of Euripides, that re-enacts the bitter and gory historical experiences of the people of the then Owu Kingdom which happened sometimes around 1821. The thematic preoccupation of Femi Osofisan in Women of Owu is that; war is unspeakably horrible and that it could easily be averted if human excesses are checkmated. The playwright attempted in the various scenes of this tragedy to depict the suffering that war causes even for those innocents who do not fight in it, innocents such as women, children, and the elderly. The Playwright thus focuses on dissuading warfare, circumventing conflict and admonishing the populace of the aftermath consequences of hostility through dramaturgy.
Keywords: Historical-Drama, Society, Factual and Artistic Ingenious
An Assessment of Communication Channels for The Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV In Rural Communities of Abuja
Dennis A. Mordi
International Centre of Excellence on Development Communication, Department of Theatre and Performing Arts, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Email- [email protected]
Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) has remained a public health concern in Nigeria because local channels of communication that many rural communities relate to and associate with are scarcely deployed to build consensus and capacities of the people to tackle MTCT. As a result, community awareness about the benefits of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) intervention and uptake of the services remain poor. This study reports on the communication platforms and tools to bolster the prevention of new HIV infection among women and children in rural communities of IddoPada, Ushafa and Old Kutunku in the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. Significantly, two of these communities are located within the two local government areas slated alongside 32 others (out of the 774 local government areas in Nigeria) for HIV epidemic control by US President Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper focuses on the communication platforms for PMTCT awareness and their effectiveness in the aforementioned communities, and the barriers preventing women from accessing PMTCT services. Quantitative and qualitative methods of study were deployed to identify the communication platforms deployed by development agencies such as the Institute of Human Virology Nigeria (IHVN) to create awareness about prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and find out the barriers militating against the communities’ acceptance of IHVN’s campaign on PMTCT. Consequently, this study found that the village heads using endogenous communication strategies such as word of mouth through town criers and their youths and children in school rather than the dominant technology-driven exogenous communication channels are better positioned to share useful information about PMTCT to community members. Village heads in these communities have become pivotal resource persons as well as gatekeepers that development agencies should involve in designing and implementing PMTCT strategies for the prevention new HIV infection amongst children.
Keywords: prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, village heads, town criers, communication platforms.
Dance in The Yorùbá Family Rites of Birth, Marriage and Death
Felix A. Akíns̩ípè̩
Department of the performing arts, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
Administrator, Digital and Emerging Technologies, The Community College of Baltimore County, USA
Birth, marriage and death are three vital rites of passages occurring within a family setting in the Yorùbá land. They are life celebrations which bring members of a Yorùbá family together. The Yorùbá social life is closely guided by religious beliefs, so much so that it is sometimes difficult to draw a clear line between the sacred and the profane. Dance occupies an important position in their family celebrations, in religions and communal experiences, and as a form of recreation. Sacred or profane, however, dance plays a most significant role in the life of the people. The reasons for the dance are as diverse as the social occurrence. Rites of passage are rituals that mark an individual’s transition from one set of socially identified circumstances to another. This paper, therefore, examines the important roles of dance in three rites of passages in the Yorùbá land hoping, in the process, that the significance of dance in the life of a people can be determined. The paper concludes among others that dance as it occurs during rites of passage functions mainly as means of bringing the extended family together in the celebration of a happy or sad occasion. Dance functions as a reciprocal gesture between children and their parents; while parents honour their children at birth and at their weddings; children, in turn, honour their parents at death.
Keywords: Dance Rite of passage, Yoruba family, Family celebrate
Sounds of Contemporary Nigerian Music as Social Transformation and Dynamics: An Interpretative Analysis of Jude Abaga’s My Belle and Wild Wild West Musical Productions
Department of Theatre and Media Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar – Nigeria. E-mail: [email protected]
The main point of this paper is to examine the contributions of contemporary Nigerian music to social change in Nigeria context, taking into consideration two of Jude (M.I) Abaga’s musical works – “My Belle” and “Wild Wild West” as interpretative discourse. This study adopts the context analysis method of investigation. Though this inquiry, it is discovered that we need to view human social life in Nigeria context as always structured, but in completely so “structuration” is as much a process of change as a reflection of stability as exemplified in Jude Abaga’s musical works”. The paper concludes that certain Nigerian contemporary musicians have attempted to expose certain impediments and challenges faced by the Nigerian enclave. The study made recommendations for further inquiry.
Keywords: Music, Transformation, Social Change, Postmodernity
Re-thinking Discipline and the Creative Process in Performing Arts
Department of Theatre Arts, Faculty of Humanities, Imo State University, Owerri. Email: [email protected]
This paper takes a look at the creative process which is a disciplined process. As a process that lifts man to the divine, it requires a strict discipline within the essence of man if he is to achieve attunement with the creative energy of God, the Supreme Creative Artist. For it is in the degree that man’s soul is attuned to the source of his being that he is able to catch a glimpse of the nature and activity of the Creator of the universe, the Creative Principle which brought him forth into expression and which stirs in him the urge to re-create as a secondary creator.
Fake News, Misinformation, Disinformation and Deception as Communication Channels of Democratic Governance in Nigeria
Department of Mass Communication, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
Effiong Edet Okon
Department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
Following the aftermath of the 2015 general elections in Nigeria, the media landscape has been inundated with fake news, disinformation, misinformation, and deceptions. What is intriguing being the fact that both the ruling and the opposition parties are unrelenting in the propagation and dissemination of messages with dire consequences to security concerns and political stability. The public is daily fed with inciting messages, allegations and counter-allegations all of which have severe implications on political stability and sustainable democratic infrastructure given the precarious balance and our core nascent democracy. This paper is a content analysis of some of the message propagated to either discredit or incite ugly situations that have dire consequences given the heterogeneous and precarious balance Nigeria as a nation finds herself.
Keyword: Fake News, Deception, Misinformation, Denials, Disinformation
Peaceful Co-Existence in Nigeria: An Analytical Study of Christian Perspective of Neighbourliness
Chibuzo Ikechi Nwanguma
Dept of Philosophy Religion, Mountain Top University, Km 12 Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, Ibafo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Email: [email protected]
Peaceful co-existence in Nigeria has consistently been proven almost impossible amidst the various efforts to live together in harmony as a people; and this has been due to the activities evil men who have consistently taken undue advantage of the endemic ethnic biases or religious bigotries in the society to perpetrate their evil agenda. Given the religious stance of the issue, this study was poised to explore a scriptural approach in unraveling the matter. Basically, the method adopted in carrying out the study was an analytical appraisal of the selected text as Paul’s theme in the passage was assessed vis-à-vis the subject matter of the work. The peace in Nigeria was termed negative, where the peace in existence is mere absence of direct violence, war, or fear etc. or anything worse than such as affirms the study. Basically, the deduction of the study was that the issue could not be who a neighbour is but what the problem is. Men of mischief were seen taking undue advantage of the ignorant, idle, and indigent youths to accomplish their nefarious selfish interests; and the counsel of this work is that such must not be accommodated: the appropriate quarters even the government must resist them squarely especially since the Government’s primary assignment is to ensure safety of lives and properties of the citizens though such may be hard for them to do on the ground that most of the ills in the society are often caused by majority of them in government.
Key Words: Peaceful, Neighbourliness, Co-Existence, Self-defense, Nigeria
Towards Effective Deployment of Theatrical Performance to Address Anti-Social Behaviours In Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Imoh Obot Sunday and Ogakason, Rasheed Oshoke
Theatrical performance is one of the tools deployed to address social issues in Nigeria. However, the trend in the university today shows that the university community is not fully benefitting from the efficacy of theatrical performances to address anti-social behaviours among students. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of use of theatrical performance to address anti-social behaviours in Ahmadu Bello University with the view to adopting same by the university authority as one of the instruments to address student’s anti-social behaviours on campus and also possible militating factors. Relevance Theory by Paul Grice was used. Survey research design was deployed and the population included undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. It was established that theatrical performances are occasionally enacted as measures to discourage students from involving themselves in anti-social behaviours during orientation programmes and during special events. These performances were not enough to adequately address anti-social behaviours among students. The study recommended that the University authorities need to consciously deploy performances to address anti-social behaviours and factors militating against the deployment of theatrical performances should be addressed with the view to making frantic improvements in strengthening the essence of theatre practice, especially in the area of providing adequate funding.
Keywords: Effective Deployment, Theatrical Performance, Anti-social Behaviours and Ahmadu Bello University.